Tribal rugs were woven without this refined approach of the more classic urban rugs. In the designs of tribal rugs, as well as most small village rugs, the weavers simply wove designs that were in their mind.
These were often images of their rural lifestyle, with stylized geometric designs of animals, landscape, insects and other forms being represented.
The rugs were often more crudely executed, with coarser wools than those of the more finely spun urban rugs.
Tribal rugs are being recognized by rug enthusiasts of all types not only for their primitive charm, but for being a pure form of cultural folk-art.
Unlike urban rugs, which were historically designed by someone other than the weavers, the tribal weaver's rugs were an expression of their life, with designs that may seem quite decorative and interesting to us, but representing something more to the weaver.
The Oriental Carpet
The handmade carpet has existed in the Orient for at least 2,500 years. The earliest known piece is the Pazyryk carpet, found in a Scythian grave in Siberia in 1949, dating back to the 3rd-4th century B.C. Judging from the accomplished workmanship in the Pazyryk piece we can assume that rugs were made a long time before then.
Detail of Pazyryk carpet
Today's Oriental carpets are made in exactly the same way. All rugs are woven on a loom, from the primitive ground loom used by nomads to the sophisticated vertical loom of the city workshops. Warps are tied between the upper and lower beams, followed by a number of wefts to create a base for the first row of knots. These knots make up the actual pattern, tied around double warps in continuous rows, followed by wefts to secure the weave. When the rug is complete it is cut down from the loom, leaving a fringe of warp at each end.
The time and skills required are almost unimaginable. A weaver can tie on average 5-7,000 knots per day and still work for many months or even years to complete a carpet. A cost comparison would show that if an Oriental rug was woven in the western world, it would probably cost in the order of 15-25 times what it costs now. Even the cost of fine Antique Oriental rugs is grossly below par compared with other fields of Fine Arts.
In the past, great care was taken in using only the best wool, dyed with natural dyes only. The combination of hand spun wool and natural dyes has been perfected throughout history and is still beyond comparison. When the synthetic dyes arrived, replacing the old dyes almost completely by 1940, there was a severe drop in quality. Many synthetic dyes run, fade and interact badly to the viewer. Some also have a corrosive effect on the wool.
Because of the aggressive sharpness of the new synthetic colours it was deemed necessary to introduce the "antique wash". This is a chemical treatment which softens the colours and gives the wool an artificial sheen. It also weakens the materials and in the end breaks up the wool, giving the rugs a very short life expectancy.
It is important to realise the difference between unique, original pieces and mass produced commercial goods. Early tribal and village rugs are guaranteed to be unique examples because the weavers worked free-style, from our modern pattern gabbehs showedin Jozan or Hali egallery you will find out.
chahar Mahal o Bakhtiari,(Bakhtiar i Tribes)
Chahar Mahal means Four area and Bakhtiaries So this is the Meaning of this name that is name of one of our provinces.In this subject I prefer invite you read compelete reserch of my friend Mr JP Willborg.
He was very pationt to finish this book and gathered notes for years and traveled to iran and the area village by village.So my sentences would be out of any value.in web address below you could ask him for his book,Also may we are able call him King of Bakhtiar becuase of numbers of pieces he gathered from this area.
Are tribes who live around Shiraz in Fars province in IRAN. The QASHQAI are a confederation of several Turkic-speaking tribes in southern IRAN numbering about 250,000 people. The QASHQAI territory extends from ABADEH and SHAH-REZA in the ISFAHAN province to the Persian Gulf coast. QASHQAI are pastoral nomads who move with their herds of sheep and goats between summer pastures in the higher elevations of the Zagros south of SHIRAZ and winter pastures at low elevations north of SHIRAZ.
Their migration routes are considered to be among the longest and most difficult of all of IRAN's pastoral tribes. QASHQAI migrate as much as 300 miles annually between summer and winter pastures. The QASHQAI confederation emerged in the eighteenth century when SHIRAZ was the capital of the Zand dynasty. During the nineteenth century, the QASHQAI confederation became one of the best organized and most powerful tribal confederations in IRAN, including among its clients hundreds of villages and some non-Turkic-speaking tribes.
Under the QASHQAI first notable leader, Khan Solat ad Doleh, their strength was great enough to defeat the British-led South Persia Rifles in 1918. Reza Shah's campaigns against them in the early 1930s were successful because the narrow pass on the route from their summer to winter pastures was blocked, and the tribe was starved into submission.
Solat and his son were imprisoned in TEHRAN, where Solat was subsequently murdered. Many QASHQAIs then settled on land in their summer pastures, which averages 2,500 meters above sea level.
The QASHQAI like the BAKHTIARI and other forcibly settled tribes, returned to nomadic life upon Reza Shah's exile in 1941. Army and government officials were driven out of the area, but the QASHQAI, reduced in numbers and disorganized after their settlement, were unable to regain their previous strength and independence.
In the post-World War II period, the QASHQAI khans supported the National Front of Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadeq. Following the 1953 royalist coup (cod'état) against Mossadeq, the QASHQAI khans were exiled, and army officers were appointed to supervise tribal affairs. The QASHQAI revolted again in the period 1962 to 1964, when the government attempted to take away their pastures under the land reform program.
A full-fledged military campaign was launched against them, and the area was eventually pacified. Since the mid-1960s, many QASHQAI have settled in villages and towns. According to some estimates, as many as 100,000 Qashqai may have been settled by 1986. This change from pastoral nomadism to settled agriculture and urban occupations proved to be an important factor hindering the QASHQAI tribes from organizing effectively against the central government after the Revolution in 1979 when exiled tribal leaders returned to Iran hoping to rebuild the confederation.
By the 1980s, the terms QASHQAI and TURK tended to be used interchangeably in Fars, especially by non-TURK speakers. Many Turkic groups, however, such as the urban of Shiraz and their related village kin in nearby rural areas and the Baharlu, the Inalu, and other tribes, were never part of the Qashqai confederation. The Baharlu and Inalu tribes actually were part of the Khamseh confederacy created to counterbalance the QASHQAI. Nevertheless, both QASHQAI and non-QASHQAI TURKS in FARS recognize a common ethnic identity in relation to non-TURKS.
All of these TURKS speak mutually intelligible dialects that are closely related to Azerbaijan. The total TURK-speaking population of FARS was estimated to be about 500,000 in 1986.
The tribe comprises numerous clans. The major ones are:
Kashkooli (Torkish)Sheesh Blocki(Torkish)
Shekar lu,Sadeghlu of kashkulies and iman lu, Darre shoue
Bayat .and Neiriz that used farsi baff tecknique
The Shahsavan-confederation was founded in the early 17th century by Shah Abbas.the word shahsavan is an Azari word Shahsovan,that means people who like king.
During the 18th century when Nadir Shah was Khan of the Afshars ( the Afshars were at this time the leading tribe in the Shahsavan-confederation ), there were around 1 million Shahsavan-members in the area around Ardabil - Meskin and north to Shirvan-, Karabag- and Gendje-provinces even to the south-hills of Dagestan.
Many of the rugs named Kazak and Gendje are probably produced by different Shahsavan tribes, who together with other Azeri-turks and Armenian villages have been most industrious in producing the so called Kazak rugs.
The Shahsavan warriors arrived to protect the north-east part ( Azerbedjan ) of Persia against the Osmans.
They were given the best pastures in the area around Savalan Mountain ( summer-camp ) down to the fertile Moghan-steppe ( winter-camp ).
When the Shahsavan-tribes became larger, many groups moved south to Varamin, Kazwin, Saveh, Zendjan, Hastrud-area, Bidjar, Tikantepe and Hamadan.
Most of them kept on as settled farmers but part of the Shahsavan-tribe lived until mid 20th century as nomads or semi-nomads and used a special kind of felt-tent ( yurt ) without center-post.
Still we can see some remained and kept their noadic live around Ardabil or Dasht e moghan .brave people that kept their culture alive.At that time there were a lot of plain-weaved textiles such as saddle-bags, salt-bags and mafrashes put on the market. These textiles are a proof of a very high knowledge in weaving soumac-tecnic and they show a high knowledge in dying on wool